Why Pride and Prejudice (2005) is a Good Adaptation

Pride and Prejudice: The Book, The Film

Jane Austen initially named her first work as First Impressions, which was written between October 1796 and August 1797. After major changes were made on the manuscript, it was finally published in 1813 with its revised title: Pride and Prejudice. It tells a story of the Bennet family, mainly focusing on its heroine Elizabeth Bennet and her relationship with her sisters, her parents, neighbours, and suitors. There is a strong theme of wealth in terms of inheritance (because the law of the time stated that wealth is only inherited from father to son, not daughters), and marriage is often seen as not only a union between two people, but it also includes their families as well as the fortune that comes with them.

The film adaptation that I’m referring to and will be discussing about in this video is the 2005 Hollywood adaptation, directed by Joe Wright, written by Deborah Moggach, starring Keira Knightley as Elizabeth Bennet and Matthew Macfadyen as Mr. Darcy.

The copy that I have of the book is more than 400 pages long. And that’s 400 pages worth of dialogue, inner thoughts, and establishing scenes that savvy kids these days call an “info dump”. But hey, you can’t blame Austen for not using the ‘show, don’t tell’ rule. This book was published back in 1813. That’s more than 200 years ago. How’s that for perspective?

The Strengths and Weaknesses of Books and Films

Books and films are two types of media that are easily accessible to a lot of us. With the rise of on-demand channels for easy access to films and digital copies of books (in both written and spoken forms), these two are the go-to media for entertainment. However, each medium has constraints and also advantages of their own.

Books

Fiction in the form of written word allows readers to freely imagine the worlds in which the narrative takes place. Also, there are no limits in terms of time. A written story can be short or it can be as long as a continuous saga that expands the story across several books. As long as the story attracts the readers old and new, a writer can stretch out the world of their protagonists to as far as they want to go. But, keep in mind that the world of a story can go as far as the readers’ imagination. Should the story not be descriptive enough or if it is too specialised to be discerned by a larger group of readers, there is a chance that a book or a series of books will not take off, or it would encounter harder times to expand from one group of fans to another.

Films

It is a different ball game altogether, even if it is the same story. Films have the ability to show instead of just telling. Elements arranged in a scene, or the mise en scene, can portray a general or specific idea within a single shot. This is unlike the novel, which would require a fairly wordy description to relay the writer’s idea to the readers. However, even with the most descriptive set of information, readers can still read a scene differently from other readers. In a film, everything’s already specified with what the audience can see onscreen.

Despite having this visual and audio advantage, there are some weaknesses to this medium. Aside from being generally more expensive than books in terms of production, films have a very limited amount of time to get from the beginning to the end. A standard film would require around an hour to 2 hours runtime. Filmmakers need to note that, unlike a book, a single film is usually watched within one seating at the cinema. So if the runtime goes longer than 3 hours, the audience’s attention might not be focused on the story anymore, but may be shifted to something else.

Adaptation: A Process

The process of making an adaptation from an existing material is not an easy task. One must not only understand the story completely, but they need to be clear with the characters that appear in the story. They need to understand their nature, their nuances, their motives. Unless.. if the adaptation only takes the general idea of the story. If that’s the case, it’s recommended that the adaptation is given a different title from the source material. For example, take Mary Shelley’s novel ‘Frankenstein’, which is also known as ‘The Modern Prometheus’ (because of the whole going against the gods aspect: Prometheus bringing fire back from Zeus and Victor Frankenstein bringing the dead back to life).

The Effective Adaptation of Pride and Prejudice

First off, a disclaimer: I understand that people hold different opinions about adaptations, so I’m gonna say this now. There’s no such thing as a perfect adaptation. But there are ways to make the story suitable for a film while still remaining faithful to the source material.

From this film, I’ve found a number of methods that’s been used to make an effective adaptation: from a 400-page novel into an-hour-and-a-half-long film.

Understand that novels and films work different

As I’ve stated earlier, books and films have their own set of strengths and weaknesses, such as time, presentation, etc.

Merging scenes and overlapping dialogue

In the film, these three chapters were compiled into an early scene at Longbourn with some minor changes, which includes Mr Bennet already visiting the Bingleys, however this alteration still gave the same effect as the book did, as this continuous scene builds up to Mr Bennet teasing his wife and creating excitement for the Bennet girls.

The same goes for overlapping dialogue. It might be missable for audiences who are not familiar with the source material, but this really helps in saving time and making the scene more realistic. This is because real conversations are hardly turn-taking and speeches tend to overlap in natural conversations. Take this scene for example:

In this scene, Mr Bennet and Mrs Bennet’s lines overlap with one another. Aside from the point I’ve mentioned earlier, when lines overlap like this, we can save time in the film. Additionally, it establishes Mrs Bennet’s character. We can see here that despite Mr Bennet’s remark, she continues listing down the names of Mr Bingley’s dance partners throughout the ball the previous evening. This showed that Mrs Bennet is more concerned about her daughters’ marital prospects than what her husband has to say.

Also you can read into Mr Bennet’s character, who despite Mrs Bennet’s seemingly harsh comment, he was able to just brush it off, making him appear to be spoiling his wife. Kinda sweet of Mr Bennet.

Removal of minor characters and scene

There are a few minor characters removed and some still remained in the film but their roles were significantly reduced. For example, Mr and Mrs Hurst (Bingley’s sister and brother in law) were removed completely from the film. Hence, the scenes with Caroline Bingley and Elizabeth discreetly arguing is cut short, because Mrs Hurst wasn’t there to gang up against the lonely Miss Bennet as she waits for her sister to recover. It should be noted that Elizabeth wrote to her mother several times to take them home due to this constant bullying, to which her mother refused. Repeatedly.

Although I’ve mentioned earlier that some balls scenes are merged together, a lot of them were removed completely. One of which had Mary perform in a smaller group, which the other guests praised her for. The Netherfield ball performance was also there in the book, and it was there when we find out that Mary could not perform in a larger room because she had to strain her voice, unlike in her previous performance. In the film, only the latter scene was shown.

Aside from that, Mr Collins had a lot of lines removed. For a good reason, perhaps. Even though Tom Hollander’s performance has captured the unlikeable characteristics of Mr Collins as he was an ignorant person with a holier-than-thou attitude, in the book, those characteristics are cranked up to 11. Because in the novel, Mr Collins not only talk about how great he is as a person and how he worships his patroness Lady Catherine de Bourgh, but he downright insults others to make sure they know how great he is.

This is a sample of what he said to Elizabeth when she advised him against introducing himself to Mr Darcy as it would suggest impertinence:

‘…Pardon me for neglecting to profit by your advice, which on every other subject shall be my constant guide, though in the case before us I consider myself more fitted by education and habitual study to decide on what is right than a young lady like yourself.’ (p. 109)

Safe to say that the dialogue remained in the film is sufficient enough to make the audience feel annoyed at him, and not make Elizabeth feel as though she was attacked by this statement. Because if you’ve watched the film, her demeanor is changed up a lot from the book.

I will discuss more on Lizzie’s change later.

Concise dialogue and acting

One of the best advantages of film is the visual aspect. You can show something on screen at an appropriate angle and/or position, and you can deliver a message that could take a few paragraphs in written form.

In the Pride and Prejudice novel, the story is told in third person omniscient, which means that the narrator is able to tell what most, if not all, of the characters’ thoughts and feelings. So as readers, we won’t only find out about Elizabeth’s or her sisters’ thoughts, but also everyone else’s. We can even read about what the brooding Mr Darcy was thinking about:

He [Mr Darcy] began to wish to know more of her, and a step towards conversing with her himself, attended to her conversation with others. (p. 26)

“In vain have I struggled. It will not do. My feelings will not be repressed. You must allow me to tell you how ardently I admire and love you.” (p. 210)

While in the film, we can only sense Mr Darcy’s transition from coldness to kindness from scenes like these:

These subtle gestures did not come as an outright proclamations of love, but it was enough to indicate his growing interests in Elizabeth that subsequently led to the first marriage proposal. Even though the audience didn’t know what he was thinking about, and how he had grown fascinated with Elizabeth despite her family and background, we could already catch hints that he had slowly fallen in love with her.

These changes still did justice to the source material because in the novel, Mr Darcy, as part of his character, is that he doesn’t speak to people he isn’t familiar with. And it went well by depicting him as this kind of awkward guy who, from his speech, is kind of high and mighty in the beginning, which is kinda on a par with Mr Collins. But unlike Collins, Darcy managed to have some degree of common sense, and his character was developed later on as he learns about humility with Elizabeth. Darcy’s character development is reflected in the film by his actions, rather than his words.

Now, remember earlier when I said that Elizabeth’s character has been altered slightly in the film? Well, this element is completely optional, but it comes in handy for a story that takes place in a different time and/or space. Because the story takes place TWO centuries ago, we the audience might feel a gap between us and them. Well, one of the things that filmmakers and scriptwriters can do to bridge that gap is to put a proxy character. In this film? It’s Elizabeth Bennet.

Insert a proxy for a 21st century audience in a 19th century setting

Like I said, this is especially useful when your story takes place in a different timeline altogether and you don’t want to spend half an hour trying to establish the main character and the conditions of her surroundings. In Pride and Prejudice, Elizabeth Bennet’s character underwent some alterations that made her voice sound more modern than the rest of the characters.

I’ve recently re-read the book and in the film, this kind of alteration is not limited only to Elizabeth, as even Caroline Bingley has significantly modern quips in her dialogue. And like I’ve mentioned before, there are also the changes made for Mr Collins. I think that’s part of the reason why some of his less savoury lines (in today’s context) were removed in the script.

However, we’ll only focus on Elizabeth’s changes here because they are more prominent and consistent throughout.

Like in an earlier part of the story, there’s this scene when Elizabeth and her sister Jane are discussing about the ball where they first met Mr Bingley:

From the novel, we can find the following passage:

‘He is just what a young man ought to be,’ said she [Jane], ‘sensible, good humoured, lively; and I never saw such happy manners! – so much ease, with such perfect good breeding!’
‘He is also handsome,’ replied Elizabeth, ‘which a young man ought likewise to be, if he possibly can. His character is thereby complete.’ (p. 15)

Meanwhile, in the film, notice how Elizabeth’s line is altered:

JANE
Mr Bingley is just what a young man ought to be. Sensible, good humoured –

ELIZABETH
(completing the list)
Handsome, conveniently rich –

In the film, Elizabeth immediately mentioned about his financial status, to complement with their own financial situation, i.e. the girls’ inability to inherit any from their father and that the only way they could avoid destitution or improving their financial status is via marital means.

Meanwhile in the book, the first commentary on Bingley’s financial status wasn’t until a few paragraphs later and it wasn’t even said by Elizabeth, but by the narrator:

Mr Bingley inherited property to the amount of nearly an (sic) hundred thousand pounds from his father, who had intended to purchase an estate, but did not live to do it. (p. 16)

Elizabeth’s wit becomes sharper in the film and we can see this AGAIN in the scene where the Bennets received a letter from Jane, who was detained at Netherfield as she was taken ill:

‘Well, my dear,’ said Mr Bennet, when Elizabeth had read the note aloud, ‘if your daughter have a dangerous fit of illness, if she should die, it would be a comfort to know that it was all in pursuit of Mr Bingley, and under your orders.’
Oh! I am not at all afraid of her dying. People do not die of little trifling colds. She will be taken good care of. As long as she stays there, it is all very well. I would go and see her, if I could have the carriage.’
Elizabeth, feeling really anxious, was determined to go to her [Jane], though the carriage was not to be had, and as she was no horse-woman, walking was her only alternative. She declared her resolution.

And this is what we see in the film:

MR BENNET
Well, my dear, if your daughter does die it will be a comfort to know it was all in pursuit of Mr Bingley.

MRS BENNET
People do not die of colds.

ELIZABETH
Though she might well perish with the shame of having such a mother. I am going to Netherfield at once.

In the book, Elizabeth’s more conservative. While in the film, she speaks her mind more openly.

Additionally, some of Elizabeth’s lines were transferred from other characters. This one is transferred from Mr Bennet during a conversation with Mr Collins, when he was poking fun at the naively unaware Mr Collins:

‘You judge very properly,’ said Mr Bennet, ‘and it is happy for you that you possess the talent of flattering with delicacy. May I ask whether these pleasing attentions proceed from the impulse of the moment, or are the result of previous study?’ (p. 76)

While in the film:

MR BENNET
(gravely)
How happy for you, Mr Collins, to possess the talent for flattering with delicacy.

ELIZABETH
Do these pleasing attentions proceed from the impulse of the moment or are they the result of previous study?

The changes that we can observe from-novel-to-film is probably due to what is considered appropriate at the time. It gives us a picture of what it’s like back in 1813, with the role of women as far more conservative and the presentation of opinions were more of a masculine act. But in our current time, we have the freedom of speech so it would be natural for Elizabeth’s character to voice out her opinions more candidly.

Conclusion

Overall, this is a good adaptation. One of the best. I wouldn’t call it a perfect adaptation, but it’s right up there. If I can summarise the 2005 adaptation in one word, I would have to say that it is effective.


The How and Why of Binge-Reading

I recently read an article by Ben Dolnick, where he discussed about why we should start binge-reading. Like I usually do with online articles, I would give it a quick read and get back to whatever I was doing, while thinking to myself afterwards that I should start reading regularly again.

Here’s the deal:

I had a reading slump some time around my postgrad studies. Specifically, while I was working on my dissertation. And it wasn’t just the “I don’t feel like reading” shtick that, I admit, has happened to me before. No, it was worse. It felt like every word that I read would just escape my mind. I couldn’t comprehend what I read, no matter how long I’ve been staring at a page, and writing it again on a separate piece of paper. I just couldn’t understand what the text was trying to tell me. And it was inconvenient as I had to read dozens of journals and books. Oh, and I was writing my dissertation on corpus linguistics, i.e. a whole lotta text!
(I can’t thank my supervisor enough for being patient with a student who apparently lost the ability to read and compose sentences when deadlines were drawing near.)

Unfortunately, this thing remained intact until I received my masters degree and even when I was working as an editor. In fact, I think the condition worsened while I was working. I found no pleasure in reading and/or writing. The thing that I loved most had become something that I dreaded.
I tried to read again, but I had to go back and forth between pages because I would always miss a word or two that was key to the scenes following them. It was a horrible feeling and I was so disappointed in myself.

Well, until something happened a few weeks ago: my Wi-Fi was down for a week. That means I had to rely on mobile data. That means I had to pay more every time I wanted to surf the web, which subsequently entailed that I could not access Netflix, YouTube, and other streaming sites because that would just suck the money out of my phone bill within the first day. Though I had to use up some of my data because I had to download materials for an assignment, I had to keep reminding myself to not go overboard.

It was a strange week. Because on a normal day, I would work as usual. Then in the evening, I would watch YouTube videos or binge on Netflix. I would only read if I feel like reading, and I can’t force myself to do it because the postgrad episode may recur and I would end up not understanding what I read. And I would feel bad about it, too. I have a ton of books that I wanted to read, but all of them had only been collecting dust in my TBR list.

Amidst the chaos (consisting of me going back and forth with the internet service provider, work, scrambling for a dictionary, etc.), I recalled another piece of help I found – just a few days before my Wi-Fi decided to go AWOL – was a video by Max Joseph, who discussed about the methods of reading more books. I’m kinda embarrassed to admit that I didn’t finish watching the video (yet), because the first few minutes got me pumped to try reading again.

You see, it’s not about how much you can read, it’s how often you read. In his video, his guest Tim Urban (writer and co-founder of Wait But Why) advised Max (and the viewers) that reading can only take up half an hour. Just make sure that it is a daily thing. You’ll read more books if you do it consistently rather than ploughing through for hours, only to retract from reading for the next couple of days, or weeks.

So, back to my week of crappy Wi-Fi connection: I took the advice that I was given and gave it a go. I began reading for half an hour a day in the morning before work, or in the evening after I was done for the day. It wasn’t much, I thought, but the more I got used to the pace, the quicker I read. And right now, I’m happy to say that I was able to consecutively complete 3 chapters of my current read (another sci-fi gem) this morning and I enjoyed every minute of it!

There is another lesson I’ve acquired, but one that I’ve gotten years ago. I was just too scattered to heed it back then. Anyway, this advice was something I learnt from Haruki Murakami’s book: What I Talk About When I Talk About Running. This is an autobiography of Murakami, in which he told his readers about the time he sold his jazz bar to become a full-time writer, which was also the time when he started long-distance running. He talked about pacing oneself and to be open for improvements. It doesn’t have to be perfect during one’s first run, but they need to keep at it every day.

Because, like Urban’s advice on reading, it’s not about how far you go. It’s how often you do it. Every runner and reader would need to pace themselves daily. Only then you can build up the proper muscles and mindset. Because in the end, it’s a continuous process. You just need to keep doing what you needed to do. So pick up a book, make time for it every day. It’s all about building a habit.

Also, to add to this whole buffet of wisdom, Murakami’s book has also convinced me to pick up long-distance running. So if you’ve been eyeing that marathon event or that 5k run but don’t have the motivation to do so, pick up this book! It’ll get you pumped!

unanalysable narcissus

She knew of inadequacy
Though she hid it well
Within a shallow bottle
With opaque walls
She wore it around in plain sight
The perfect hiding spot
The slightest hint
In addressing the content
Of said bottle
And she would dismiss it
She’d give her reasons
Seemingly strong ones
Yet she knew they were inconsistent
Ever-changing
Like the smoke emitted from her cigarettes
She knew that with such a signal
She would be found
She just didn’t want to believe it
Until she found a new target
A subject that clung onto her
This one reluctant leech
That digested her words and regurgitated them
Into perfectly bite-sized pieces
In optimum dimensions for digestion

Guards up, she’s back in her game
She laid down her maze
Putting up false walls to where the exit is
Denying entry to the core
She found its flaws
She found her escape
Over the time spent
Finding the clinger growing weaker
And her influence stronger
She dodged every fault
She found her way out
Every single time
For the gods would always favour the likes of her
And not the undignified stooge
The parasite became a crutch
That began to grow hollow
And as all echoes do
Like her smoke
They fade

As dawn approaches

My nose tickled by the smell of sawdust. A small flame on a matchstick ignited the piece of wood and paper. Soon, the itching sensation was gone, as the shards were engulfed in flames. At this distance, safe enough away from the small and tame fire, and near enough to the open door leading to the intensely crisp fresh air of a morning at the highlands, one that would convince me that I would, for the first time, experience the feeling of choking on too much air. The burning wood had a sweetness in its smoke and the air outside merged together in this suspension of euphoria. What a delightful morning we are having.

Colours Unseen

Intuition that was tainted with fear
And interwoven with uncertainty
Malicious thoughts and ideas instilled
So much noises, unfiltered going inside and out
Tame in a fleeting moment but right in the next
Ill-tempered with no apparent rationale to why
Lost it was all hopes that we clung onto
Lost it was all love that we worked hard on
Hubris was the downfall of ancient gods and heroes
Exuberance of arrogance and confidence only they can pull off
Reversed to what is becoming to the present-day mortal
Empowered in one moment and crushed the next
How can it have shifted so quickly?
Exponentially? Abruptly? Suddenly? Fatally?
Lay down all fear, anger, frustrations, and guilt
Pride aside, and ego we forgo
Malevolent beings, our demons
Everlasting as our souls can be

In the city

Here in the city that I hate
Ear-splitting noises are all around
The scorching heat scathes the soles of my feet
Sweating and palpitating from the surroundings
Ethics are off the table because here we’re only nice
to the ones we know
and those who benefits us
Disgust
The smiles they’re pushing to me are criminal
Much disinterest enveloped in the battery-powered warmth
I long for the cold to escape the heat
Just the alternate artificial weather that’s now my solace

Rain in the city I hate
Makes the air better
Just as long as I divert my attention
From the floating carcasses of man-made bodies
Sail away, sail away
To a Viking’s end
Pray no one decides to torch them though
Or there will be Hel to pay

Submerged

a- (prefix)
1. not; without
(Greek)
2. to; towards
in the process of (an activity)
in a specified state
on
in
(Old English)

The back of her throat and her nasal cavity were burning from the chlorine content in the water. Her lungs were beginning to have the same sensation so she must’ve swallowed a little too much. Should she remain submerged any longer, she might have not woken up at all. This much she knows; it wouldn’t take a medical student like her to figure it out. She shivered as she clambered out of the fish tank and dropped down onto the carpeted floor when her legs failed her. Her ears were ringing so she couldn’t tell if she was screaming or wheezing as she gasped desperately for every breath. The blurriness of her eyes subsided first and she could see the darkened spots on the fabric she was lying on from soaking the water off her clothes.

Then a sudden sensation of nausea hit her like a crashing wave. Pulling herself together in a split second, she rolled to her stomach and elevated her torso with her elbows. The gush of chlorinated water mixed with some of her bodily fluids spilled onto the already wet carpet and soon her arms gave, sending her slamming onto the floor again. It smelled of something awfully sour and she didn’t dare look at the mess that she made. Mucus began to thicken in her nose and mouth, so she had to get up again. She sat still on the floor and facing the opposite way from the spill. Her breathing slowed, but it was still excruciating for her just to inhale.

Her mind wandered and tried to make sense of her being in a fish tank in the first place, but she couldn’t remember. There was no fish, she noted as she glanced upwards, only some aquatic plants that are commonly seen sold in pet stores. She might have damaged some of them. The fish tank had intricate details carved on the sides, and for her untrained eyes it looked antique; the expensive sort that nostalgists could appreciate. She looked around and realised that she was right where she was supposed to be at the time. This was the guest room that she was led to when she arrived at the estate of one of the most influential doctors in the country. She was only here as the proxy of her mentor, who at the last minute announced that he could not make it. When she felt that her legs were strong enough, she pushed herself up with the aid of nearby furniture.


This is part 1 of Ashen Seed, an original short story by yours truly.

The Long-Awaited Goodbye

Dearest Oblivion,

I come to you again to bid you farewell. I shall leave you, and no doubt that I shall try to forget you. We humans tend to forget things as the conscious mind is a labyrinth of words to unravel, so if there are more strings to untangle, I’m afraid that nothing much will become of the human race but an idle group of mind and of no substance.

Dearest Oblivion,

Like the last time you came into my life, you had no hint of sympathy as you smothered me in the heaviness of your sticky and dense cloak. The colour was something no one should ever see. It made the night sky feel as if it was midday in June and the daylight a blinding and intrusive glare. You had me run and hide, and worst of all you made me senseless. You swallowed me whole and let me decay in your very being that I became solitary. And in solitary, over time, you drove me insane.

Dearest Oblivion,

For one thing, I do have you to thank. You made me see who true friends are and whose blood I carry forth with me in my journey. You showed me how these people and I are connected. Not in an iron-clad, death-grip bond, but a delicate silk string. We can tie it and we can untie it. And the best thing about it is that it is okay regardless of the state. People are allowed to let go and grow, beautify their silk strings. Paint it a new colour. Replace it. Fix it. Cherish it. To the contrary of what you taught me, if I were to forcefully enforce it, it would become a string of briar. And the tighter I hold on to it, the more it will cut me. Although there is no shame in holding on, you also taught me that I should take measures based on what I am capable of, and not based on the capacity of others.

Dearest Oblivion,

I want to end my letter on a happy note. Because you’ve taught me that happiness is a relative concept. One affects the other. I guess if you were not around to teach me about it, I might have overlooked it. For this lesson, I thank you.

Till one day when we meet again, though I would not want it to come so soon. Give me a chance to not acknowledge you. Give me permission to forget, just for a moment. Because as reluctant as I am about it, I will still think of you once in a while, and when I do, I will pray to God in gratitude to have met you, and hopefully, to have kept you at bay.

Till death sets us free from each other.

Sincerely yours.

“…the courage of stars…”

Within the first few seconds of the video, we see fragments of light joining together, back to the source. The footage of fireworks in reverse emulated the formation- the unity of these small sparks of light into a significantly brighter spiral of radiant glow. A halo. An orbit that moved inwards. Back together again. Back as one.

In these moments of clarity, could we not sense the weary old soul that is within us all and still feel like a helpless child, dependant on the universe that we dwell in? And yet, that universe, the vast and glorious universe, is as brittle as glass. One misstep, one glide away from the orbit, and everything would collapse. It would not take a second, but prolonged periods of time. To most, they would go unnoticed, just until the ground beneath our feet gets ripped away from us and the whole thing derails. Right then, we’d ask ourselves and others what had happened? How it happened? What could have been done to prevent it?

It’s in the minute actions and words that accumulates into something major. Like a collection of stars that form clusters and constellations.

I remember the first time I watched the music video for “Saturn” by Sleeping At Last. That I wept as I did. During the time, I recently lost loved ones. People who I knew had more to say and more life than anyone would have ever known. For a moment, time felt like it stopped, and there was no going forward from then on.

And yet like a lot of us who faced loss and grief, we had to move on without our loved ones who have gone before us. And in a way, we inherited their knowledge. Not in words, but from their lives as a whole. Brief as their time may be, they lived. The cycle will indeed continue as long as there are others to carry on with our knowledge, and they too will repeat the sequence till the end of time.

So the question is now, what is the knowledge that we will leave behind when it is our time to go?

Watch “Saturn” by Sleeping At Last at https://youtu.be/dzNvk80XY9s